Furkan Duman1, Handan Can2, Alev Leventoğlu3

1Ufuk University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Psychology, Ankara, Turkey
2Bursa Uludag University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Psychology, Bursa, Turkey
3Ufuk University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Ankara, Turkey

Keywords: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, cognitive impairment, short-term memory, working memory, executive functions


Objective: To compare patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and healthy individuals in terms of short-term memory (STM), working memory (WM) and executive functions.

Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 33 patients with RRMS and 26 healthy participants. The groups were matched in terms of age, gender, level of education and hand dominance. The socio-demographic characteristics of the participants were recorded; and they were evaluated with Beck depression inventory and state/trait anxiety inventory. Visual aural digit span test B form, Wisconsin card sorting test, backward digit span task, stroop test T-BAG form, Wechsler memory scale: Revised form visual memory span subtest (WMS-R/VMS) and trail making test (TMT) for cognitive functions.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of depression and anxiety scores (p>0.05). Backward visual memory span calculated from WMS-R/VMS was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the RRMS group. However, there was no significant difference between groups in WMS-R/ VMS and TMT scores (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that patients with RRMS have lower visuo-spatial sketchpad capacity in their WM. However, there was no significant difference between patients with RRMS and healthy controls in terms of verbal and visuo-spatial STM capacity, phonological loop capacity in WM, perseveration, conceptualization, inhibition and set shifting skills.

Ethics Committee Approval

Ufuk University Faculty of Medicine Non-Interventional Clinical Research Evaluation Commission (approval number: 20171101-2).

Peer Review

Externally peer-reviewed.

Author Contributions

Concept: F.D., H.C., Design: F.D., H.C., A.L., Data Collection or Processing: F.D., A.L., Analysis or Interpretation: F.D., H.C., A.L., Literature Search: F.D., H.C., A.L., Writing: F.D., H.C., A.L.

Conflict of Interest

No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.

Financial Disclosure

The authors declared that this study received no financial support.