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Turkish Journal of Neurology Indexed By
  Risk Factors in Developing Hallucinations in Parkinson’s Disease [Turk J Neurol]
Turk J Neurol. 2006; 12(1): 14-20

Risk Factors in Developing Hallucinations in Parkinson’s Disease

Gülçin Benbir1, Sibel Özekmekçi1, Meral Çınar2, Fuat Beşkardeş3, Hülya Apaydın1, Ethem Erginöz4
1Department Of Neurology, İstanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty Of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey
2Department Of Psychiatry, İstanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty Of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey
3Department Of Public Healty, İstanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty Of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey
4Neurology Clinic, Taksim Education Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey

OBJECTIVE: Hal lucinations are frequent non-motor
symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD).
METHODS: In this study, it was aimed to investigate the possible risk
factors on the emergence of hallucinations in PD.
RESULTS: Seventy hallucinating PD patients (Group 1)
and non-hallucinating 60 PD patients as control group (Group 2) were
enrolled in the study. The mean age at onset of hallucinations in Group
1 were matched with the mean age of patients at their last available visit
in Group 2. Between these two groups, the age at onset of first PD
symptom, duration of PD, Hoehn-Yahr (H&Y) staging, Unified PD Rating
Scale (UPDRS) scores, duration and mean dosage of levodopa and other
antiparkinsonian drugs, the presence of wearing-off phenomenon,
dyskinesia and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) were
CONCLUSION: The mean age at onset of PD symptoms in hallucinators was
higher than those of non-hallucinators (p=0.02). Although the daily
activity and motor parts of UPDRS and H&Y scores did not differ
between two groups, the UPDRS part I scores were significantly higher
in patients with hallucinations, as expected (p=0.0001). The mean
duration of PD, duration and daily doses of dopaminergic drugs did not
show any differences between the groups. Similarly, motor
complications developed in both groups with no statistical difference.
However, RBD was more frequently encountered among hallucinators
than non-hallucinators (p=0.007).
Conclusions: Hallucinations could develop during the course of PD, and
late onset of first PD symptom is associated with the emergence of
hallucinations, as well as RBD frequently found to accompany the
hallucinations in PD. However, the duration and severity of PD along
with the duration and dosage of antiparkinsonian drugs do not have a
role in the appearance of hallucinations. As data in the literature are
inconclusive, it has been suggested that the emergence of
hallucinations in PD, which has been thought to be multifactorial, may
be influenced by many factors, including especially the cognitive states.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, hallucination, REM behavior disorder, motor complication, dopaminergic therapy

Gülçin Benbir, Sibel Özekmekçi, Meral Çınar, Fuat Beşkardeş, Hülya Apaydın, Ethem Erginöz. Risk Factors in Developing Hallucinations in Parkinson’s Disease. Turk J Neurol. 2006; 12(1): 14-20

Corresponding Author: Sibel Özekmekçi, Türkiye

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